- Written by David W. Thomson III
Unified Force Theory
Simple and Symmetrical
For over 100 years, physicists have been searching for a Unified Force Theory in order to unify what the Standard Model calls the electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces. Because the Standard Model prefers to view the interaction of the forces in terms of “fields,” it is often called the “unified field theory.” Even more important is the Theory of Everything, which not only unifies the three named forces, but also includes the gravitational force. Still others consider a Theory of Everything one that literally ties together all known phenomena.
The Aether Physics Model reinterprets the nature of the three electrical forces and labels them the electrostatic force, proportion of electric force (or weak interaction), and electromagnetic (strong) force, respectively. In addition, the Aether Physics Model provides a mathematically correct Theory of Everything that unifies all four forces.
In order to understand the nature of the forces, it is necessary to understand the structures that manifest the forces. The Aether Physics Model sees all stable quantum matter (onta) as primary angular momentum encapsulated by Aether.
There are two types of charges, the electrostatic charge, and the strong charge. The electrostatic charge has a spherical solid angle, which it inherits from the spherical distributed frequency dimensions of Aether. The strong charge has steradian solid angle, which derives from the interaction of primary angular momentum with the conductance of the Aether.
Understanding how distributed charge angles are independent of distributed length geometry is essential to understanding the two types of charges. While the distributed charge relationship between charge solid angle of 1 and charge steradian solid angle is , the surface area relationship between the sphere surface constant and toroid surface constant is . The two geometries do not have a direct relationship to each other, as one applies to solid angle charges and the other to distributed length (surface area).
Further, a toroid can become spherical in nature when its small radius becomes very large and its large radius becomes very small. In such cases, even though the surface geometry is still that of a toroid, the steradian strong charge will behave as though it has spherical solid angle.
The spherical electrostatic charge and the toroidal strong charge have a precise proportion, which is the “weak interaction,” or “charge ratio,” of the onn. Technically, the weak interaction is not an actual force and so there are only three fundamental forces.
The electrostatic charge is the “carrier” of the electrostatic force and the strong charge is the “carrier” of the electromagnetic or strong force. The strong charge is also directly proportional to the mass of the onn (via its angular momentum) and provides the link between the gravitational force and strong force. In the end, all three forces are actually manifestations of the one Gforce. The charges and mass could depict as three colored glass panes through which we view a light. The same light illuminates each pane of glass, even though each pane is a different color.
There are no gluons, quarks, flavors, colors, or other imaginary particles invoked to unify the forces. The entire Unified Force Theory has a Newtonian mathematical foundation and the calculated relative strengths of the forces precisely verify through numerous experiments.
The physical elementary charge activates directly from the Aether electrostatic charge as the onn spins in it. The elementary charge squared has spherical geometry and arises from distributed frequency (resonance of time and spin parity direction), which is in turn caused by the reciprocal mass of the Gforce.
In the image at right, the Aether depicts as having two spheres, which arise as the oscillation of forward/backward time and right/left spin direction. Only one onn can exist in any given Aether unit at a given moment. In addition, each onn must take a very specific spin position, depending on its mass and direction of spin.
As an onn spins in its particular Aether spin position, the angular momentum activates the electrostatic charge. For example, electron angular momentum occupies the blue spin position and thus picks up a negative electrostatic charge (elementary charge squared). A positron would take the yellow spin position and pick up positive electrostatic charge. All onta spin only in the forward direction of time.
In the Standard Model of physics, charge expresses with a single dimension. However, since all charge always appears as distributed85, the Aether Physics Model expresses all charge in distributed dimensions. The elementary charge has been measured and has a value of . The symbol for elementary charge is .
Elementary charge in the Aether Physics Model expresses as and we name it “electrostatic charge”. Thus the value for electrostatic charge in the Aether Physics Model is:
Expressing all electrostatic charge as does not change its relative value. All units involving charge adjust accordingly.
Changing elementary charge to distributed units is not an arbitrary decision. First, it reflects reality as observed by Charles Coulomb. Second, distributed charge implies from Aether geometry (as explained by angular momentum spinning in Aether conductance). And third, expressing all charge as distributed is the key to the Unified Force Theory. It is interesting to note that Charles Coulomb made the correct observation that all charge distributes, even though charge units did not express in distributed dimensions. If he and his peers had expressed charge in distributed dimensions, they would have discovered the Unified Force Theory over 100 years ago.
Charles Coulomb came very close to discovering the electromagnetic (strong) charge:
Had Coulomb considered that there are two different types of charge, he would have noticed that the second charge is electromagnetic in nature (as opposed to the electrostatic charge). In addition, he would have been able to express the force law for this other type of charge in terms of a modified inverse square law of distances (as done in the Aether Physics Model).
As it is, modern physics recognizes only one type of charge, and consequently the strong force poorly describes in terms of particles called gluons.
Before quantifying strong charge, we note that the conductance of the Aether derives from Coulomb’s constant and its relationship to the other known constants of the “vacuum”:
Scant literature exists describing the conductance of Aether (vacuum, free space, quantum foam) in modern physics. Conductance is the “measure of a material's ability to conduct electric charge.” Electrons do “conduct” through the Aether, as observed when electrons travel in the space between the Sun and Earth. Electrons also pass through Aether in a vacuum tube. The conductance constant is a specific measure of the Aether’s ability to conduct strong charge.
Planck’s constant is equal to:
Planck’s constant generally defines in modern physics as “The constant of proportionality relating the energy of a photon to the frequency of that photon.” The Standard Model has missed the fact that Planck’s constant is actually the quantification of the electron.
Strong charge then calculates as:
where is the strong charge. The strong charge, like the electrostatic charge, is distributed.
Unlike electrostatic charge, each onn has a strong charge value proportional to its mass. This is because the strong charge is dependent on the angular momentum of the onn, and the Aether length and frequency dimensions are quantum measurements. Strong charge notates as for the electron, for the proton, and for the neutron.
The proportion of electrostatic charge to strong charge is equal to times the fine structure of the onn.
The significance of this proportion is that it represents the "weak interaction" of the onn. Because each onn has its own strong charge, it will also have its own "weak interaction" constant.
Equations through represent the unified charge equations for each onn. Taken together these equations are the basis for a mathematically correct Unified Force Theory.
The Aether Physics Model shows that the weak interaction is merely the proportion of the electrostatic force to the strong force. When the relative strengths of distributed charge carriers are analyzed, we find electrostatic charge to be 10,000 times weaker than the electromagnetic charge. However, since the Standard Model views charge in single dimension, it appears as only 100 times weaker.
The unified charge equations dictate a general geometry for the onta.
The graphic on the previous page illustrates the two charges of the electron as their solid angles proportionally relate to each other. It is important to keep in mind that the graphic is only for conceptualizing the solid angles; it does not represent the true shape of an electron.
Electrostatic charge has the solid angle of 1 (tiny yellow sphere in center of light green sphere) while the strong charge has the solid angle of a steradian (projected as the dark green band).
From Aether perspective, the actual electron shape would appear as in the blue loxodrome image at right.
The strong charge has a solid angle equal to of the spherical electrostatic charge. What this means is that the distribution of the electrostatic charge is spherical, whereas the distribution of the strong charge is of an equivalent strong charge, 1-spin sphere.
Again, the electrostatic charge has 1-spin due to its relation to the Aether spherical distributed frequency. The strong charge has ½ spin, due to the ½ spin of the angular momentum, so multiplying ½ spin by 2 converts ½ spin to 1-spin. Now multiplying the steradian solid angle of strong charge by converts the steradian solid angle of the strong charge to a solid angle sphere.
To keep track of the geometry of the charge, we could introduce a geometrical symbolism.
The proportion of the electron electrostatic charge sphere to the electron electromagnetic charge sphere is a, the fine structure constant of the electron.
Equation is the same as equation .
There are three recognized forces, the gravitational, electrostatic, and strong force. The weak interaction is not a force at all. The gravitational force is proportional to the strong force by way of the mass to strong charge ratio. The electrostatic force, weak interaction, and strong force all work together. The electrostatic force law works for electrostatic charge at a relatively long distance, but not at a very close distance. Also, the strong force law works for electromagnetic charge at a very close distance, but not at a relatively long distance. The two forces actually trade off, depending on the distance between the charged bodies.
After completing the nuclear binding energy equation, we can predict that it will include elements of both the electrostatic and electromagnetic force laws. It will also likely include the weak interaction as a term.
Electrostatic Force Law
The Coulomb law is the law governing the force between electrostatic charges. Coulomb’s experiments with the torsion balance (above photo) involved spherical surfaces and aimed to maximize electrostatic potential. As electrostatic charge applied to the spheres, the force between the spheres would increase. The charged spheres would then attract (if opposite charged) or repel (if like charged) and thus would move a specific distance. Experiment showed that the distance squared was inversely proportional to the amount of the electrostatic charges:
In equation , where is Coulomb’s electrostatic constant, represents the electrostatic charge, is the distance between the charges, and is the resultant force.
Coulomb noticed that the above law does not hold when the charges become very close to each other. This is because the strong charge begins to take over. The boundary between the electrostatic charge dominance and the electromagnetic charge dominance is gradual. The balance between these two forces results in the weak interaction.
In equation , is the Newton gravitational constant, and are two masses, is the distance between the masses, and is the force between the masses.
It is not necessary to elaborate further on the gravitational law since information is widely available concerning its nature.
Strong Force Law
The strong force law is unknown to modern physics. According to the Standard Model, the strong force is “In physics, the force that holds particles together in the atomic nucleus and the force that holds quarks together in elementary particles.” There is no practical equation for calculating the strong force in the Standard Model because there is no practical strong force carrier.
However, the strong force carrier in the Aether Physics Model is the electromagnetic charge, or strong charge. The strong charge quantifies as the angular momentum of the onn times the conductance of the Aether. Thus, the strong charge of the proton is equal to:
The strong force of the proton calculates using the strong force law, which is similar to that of the electrostatic force law and the gravitational law. As in the case of the electrostatic law, the product of two strong charges calculates from a single dimension of each charge. Since the binding force causes the protons and neutrons to have large “small radii” and small “large radii,” the onta appear spherical. Thus, the Coulomb constant instead of the Aether unit constant is the force mediator.
The strong force of the neutron is similarly calculated:
The strong force law for free protons and free neutrons would probably integrate the Aether unit constant with the Coulomb constant. This is because free protons and free neutrons are more toroidal in shape. However, once they bind, their shape becomes spherical.
Since the Aether is always acting upon strong charge, whether or not there is another onn present, the strong force per onn is actually the strong force of a single onn. In other words, the Aether is acting on onta to produce force even when there is no other onn around to interact with the force. This must be so since the onta have no proximity system that can sense when another onn is nearby, and then react to it.
The total nuclear binding force is the sum of all force acting upon onta in an atomic nucleus. The total force acting upon a single neutron at one quantum length, even though there are no other neutrons or protons nearby, is:
The total strong force for an atomic nucleus of deuterium, however, is:
Coulomb’s constant appears in equation due to the spherical structure of the resulting nucleus. The nuclear strong force equation then expresses as:
where is the number of protons and is the number of neutrons in the nucleus. The nuclear strong force equation quantifies nuclear binding force. We can modify to produce a nuclear binding energy equation, which predicts the nuclear binding energy for all isotopes. (page 236)
As shown in the section on particle radii, the free proton has a very small “small radius” and a very large “large radius.” Thus, a single hydrogen atom is both very thin and very wide. However, as soon as protons and neutrons bind, the strong charge causes the onta to contract. The large radius becomes much smaller and the small radius becomes much larger. This causes the geometry of the strong charge to change from toroidal to spherical in geometry.
In the “two toroids” graphic, both the blue object and green object are toroids. The green toroid has a small radius that is larger than the large radius.
The two onta adjoining each other tend to squash into a single sphere as in the graphic of the deuterium atom below.
Nuclear Highlights, Jefferson Labs
As long as the total surface area of the onn remains exactly one quantum length squared, the onn can assume any shape without violating conservation of angular momentum, mass, energy or any other perceived conservation law.
When onta are relatively far apart, the Coulomb electrostatic constant mediates the spherical geometry charge. When protons and neutrons are contacting, Coulomb’s constant still mediates spherical geometry charge. The change of shape from toroidal to spherical does not appear to occur to bound electrons within atoms, which have a mass of about 1836 times less than a proton or neutron.
Relative Force Strengths
A comparison of the Unified Force Theory calculated force carrier strengths to the empirically derived force carrier strengths of the Standard Model.
The Standard Model attempts to describe force carriers in terms of particles.
To begin with, the Standard Model photon is not truly quantum. There is a different “sized” photon for each frequency of electromagnetic radiation. In addition, all force carriers in the Standard Model incorrectly express in terms of particles. If force carriers were truly particles, then binding energy would be equal to the force of the force carrier times the distance it travels. This is not the case. The concept of a force being a particle is meaningless.
In the Aether Physics Model, the force carriers are the electrostatic charge, electromagnetic charge, and mass. The so-called “weak force” is really just a proportion of electrostatic charge to electromagnetic charge. The true source of force in the Universe is the Gforce, which acts through Coulomb’s electrostatic constant, the strong charge constant (quantum Aether unit), and the Newton gravitational constant.
Here we will determine the relative strengths of Gforce as it acts on electrostatic charge, electromagnetic charge, and mass. But since the Standard Model experiments that determine the relative strengths of the forces are expressed in single dimension charge, we will have to compare the square root of APM charges to the Standard Model charges in order to observe the relative strengths.
We will begin with the electrostatic charge [equation ], taking it to be equal to 1 elementary charge in the Standard Model. The strong charges will now compare in terms of electrostatic charge. The proton and neutron strong charges are each nearly 100 times greater in magnitude than the elementary charge, as determined by the Standard Model. The electron strong charge is only 2.335 times stronger than the elementary charge, when we view the strength of single dimension charge. The Standard Model does not recognize the strong charge of the electron, but if it did, we would likely observe it in electron plasmas.
Unified Force Theory Relative Charge Strengths
Standard Model Relative Force Carrier Strengths
(Strong nuclear force of electron not recognized)
(Weak interaction of electron not recognized)
The weak nuclear interaction calculates for the proton and neutron as:
Since both results are already ratios comparing the electrostatic charge to strong charge, they remain just as they are. So in comparing the electrostatic charge, strong charge, and weak interaction, the Aether Physics Model makes a direct hit when it predicts the relative strengths of the force carriers as seen by the Standard Model. For a more detailed comparison of the relative strengths of the forces see our paper, Calculations of the Unified Force Theory:
More on the Strong Force
The strong force compared to the electrostatic force between the protons is 1,581,000 times stronger. The strong force compared to gravitational force between the protons is in the order of 1042 times greater.
As in the case of the electron, the ratio of strong force between protons at one quantum distance, to the gravitational force between protons, is equal to the ratio of the mass associated with the Aether to the mass of the proton:
At one quantum distance, the strong force clearly rules. From the above equations, it is possible to find the distances where the forces are relatively equal to each other. In the case of the proton strong force compared to the proton gravitational force, to equal the gravitational force between two protons at one quantum distance, two protons would have to be apart to experience the same magnitude in the strong force. However, in order for the strong force to be in effect, the two protons would also have to be magnetically aligned with each other. The south pole of one proton must face the north pole of the other proton in order to effect a complete strong force attraction.
There is a popular myth that the strong force does not reach beyond a very short distance; however, this short reach is in appearance only. The strong force is so strong, that after a certain distance, an onn must contend with the strong force that carries by all other onta within force range. The effect is a type of magnetic suspension in space. Gravity would have a similar problem if it were both repulsive and attractive. However, since gravity is linear and always attractive (except to anti-matter), it penetrates uniformly through all strong charge and electrostatic charge.
However, when a group of onta has all or most of its strong charge magnetically aligned (such as in a crystal), then the strong force emerges more noticeably than the gravitational force and manifests as permanent magnetism. Most magnetic effects are due to electron magnetic alignment, but there are likely special cases (such as neutron stars) where the magnetism is due to the magnetic alignment of protons and neutrons.
The equation for calculating the attractive Casimir force between two plates is shown below. We chose the area separated by a quantum distance to be the length and area for quantum measurement analysis purposes.
The Dutch physicist Hendrick Casimir developed the form of the above equation in 1948. In 1996, Steven Lamoreaux conducted an experiment that verified the Casimir effect equation to within 5%.
Looking at equation , we see the in the numerator. In the Aether Physics Model, is equal to the unit of the photon.
It is no error that the equation for the Casimir Effect contains the APM unit for the photon in the numerator. But as will be seen shortly, the so-called "virtual photons" are mathematically shown to be the result of the strong charge of the electron being acted upon by the strong force.
Using the Aether Physics Model, let us modify Casimir’s equation by replacing with the unit and express the force in units of .
Because we have chosen the quantum distance for and the quantum distance squared for , the numerical terms produce an identity.
The numerical divided by is too close to to ignore. Could it be that the Casimir equation was calculated or inferred incorrectly? Perhaps it should be:
A comparison of the numerical term in the original Casimir equation to the assumed numerical term gives:
The Casimir value is just 3.3% greater than the value. In 1996 Steven Lamoreaux empirically measured the Casimir Effect to within 5% of the Casimir equation. Therefore, the assumed value could be correct.
What's the point of this exercise? is the geometrical constant of the Aether in the Aether Physics Model. According to an article about the Casimir effect research of U. Mohideen and Anushree Roy, published in the Physical Review,
The shape of is a double loxodrome and it is equal to the spherical constant squared. As shown in the neutron equation for the neutrino (page 184), Aether folds according to its spherical geometry in order to trap the angular momentum known in the Standard Model as the anti-neutrino.
Of further interest is that is equal to the strong charge of the electron times Coulomb's constant.
So the Casimir equation can transpose as:
And so it appears that the Casimir effect is the result of the electron strong charge of the electrons in the metal plates affecting each other through a form of Coulomb's law. But Lamoreaux clearly states in his paper, “There was no evidence for a force in any of the data….”137 But even though the force is not an inverse square force, it does increase rapidly with the closer distances, as he writes, “The Casimir force is nonlinear and increases rapidly at distances less than .” This is entirely consistent with the strong force law as it increases according to the inverse square law, but at a rate times sharper than the electrostatic force.
Taking the area and lengths to be the quantum length, the adjusted Casimir equation transposes and simplifies as the Aether Physics Model strong force equation for the electron:
So the success of the Casimir effect experiments is evidence of the existence of the strong charge of the electron, as well as the electron strong force law. The experiments also provide evidence to support the Aether Physics Model’s assertion that the photon is equal to the angular momentum of the electron times the speed of light.
To calculate the force between two Casimir plates, measure the strong charge of each plate, divide by the distance between them squared, and multiply by the Aether constant. The strong charge is easy to calculate, because it is always proportional to the mass. In the Casimir effect experiment, the mass is that of the free electrons placed on each plate.
Another observation about Lamoreaux’s experiment:
The “apparent shockingly large potential of 430 mV” seemed anomalous because only 300mV had applied to the plates. Instead of interpreting the increased potential as an artifact of the Casimir effect, Lamoreaux sought to dismiss it as the result of various metallic contacts. Lamoreaux did not explain exactly what physical principle he thought it was that produced the increased potential. It seems he would have been careful enough to avoid thermoelectric effects, so it is unclear just what process he thought caused the extra 130mV of potential across shorted plates.
An alternative to the “40 separate electrical connections” explanation is that photons emerged from the Aether between the plates. The angular momentum for the photons would have come from between the Aether units (dark matter) as described in the neutrino section (page 186), thus there is conservation of angular momentum.
It may have been that the short between the plates provided a resistance load. That may have converted the photons into electrons via the photoelectric effect, in which case the electrons flowed in order to balance the opposite potentials of the plates.
General Relativity Theory
From the preceding sections, we have seen the importance of the weak interaction constant in relating the electrostatic charge of Aether with the electromagnetic charge of matter. We have also seen that electrostatic charge influences the spin behavior of onta through magnetic moment. Therefore, it is that Aether (Einstein’s space-time) interacts with onta (mass-energy). Einstein’s field equation for this relationship reduces to:
where is the space-time curvature tensor and is the mass-energy tensor.
According to General Relativity Theory, light bends because of the effect of gravity on the surrounding space-time curvature. The problem with this concept is that gravity needs two masses to exert its effect. There is nothing in space-time for the gravity to act on with regard to the mass of the object that curves space-time. It is simply assumed, without rationale, that the presence of a massive body will somehow affect space-time simply because it has a lot of gravitational mass.
In the Aether Physics Model, the bending of light around a massive object has nothing to do with gravity. We recall that mass is directly proportional to the strong force. As neutrons form from strong force binding, Aether units fold and stretch the surrounding fabric of space inward toward the binding. On a massive scale, such as around stars, the stretched space causes a lensing effect for passing photons.
The strong force mediates by the strong charge, or electromagnetic charge. The spherical resonance of Aether is the source of electrostatic charge. Therefore, the electrostatic charge of Aether acts upon the strong charge of matter. The strong charge is the effect of the angular momentum (dark matter) of the onn spinning within the conductance of the Aether.
The Aether Physics Model analysis of the unit of magnetic moment proves that Aether electrostatic charge can affect the strong charge of matter. Furthermore, simple experiments exist, which provide empirical data that Aether electrostatic charge directly interacts with the strong charge of onta.
For several years, Jean Louis Naudin has been experimenting with electrostatic propulsion via asymmetric capacitors, often called “lifters,” or “asymmetric capacitors.” Posted on his web site are over 300 independent replications of the lifter in various manifestations. According to the Aether Physics Model, the lift occurs when the Aether dipoles align due to the electrostatic charge of the thin conductor compared to the broad conductor. The surrounding gross medium (atmosphere, oil, etc) amplifies this effect.
Simultaneously, the strong charge of the larger conductor attracts to the electrostatically aligned Aether units. The key to electrostatic propulsion, it would seem, is in designing a thin, lightweight material with magnetically aligned crystal structure, or at least a material with electrons that realign freely.
Just as the unified charge equations show the relationship of electrostatic to electromagnetic charge in asymmetric capacitors, the same mechanics hold true for larger objects.
Special Relativity Theory
There are comments made in previous pages concerning the lack of evidence for the equivalence of energy and mass. The mathematical foundation of mass/energy equivalence clashes with established definitions of equalities, and the background noise of relativistic experiments buries any data that might support SRT. Although scenarios involving photons work well with SRT, scenarios involving gross matter, do not.
However, the Lorentz transformations adopted by Special Relativity theory developed around the fluid Aether concept, in the first place. Therefore, in any mechanical reference, moving frames are essentially the same thing as regions of Aether moving relative to other regions of Aether.
As the Aether Physics Model was developed, there was a careful review of the data and theory supporting Special Relativity. All other conventional physics theories could find a correspondence in the Aether Physics Model. This author cannot determine that mass/energy equivalence was ever a proper theory and can find no analog for it in the Aether Physics Model.
John Neiby observed an interesting curiosity while investigating the Aether Physics Model. He noted the square of the natural log could approximately express in terms of the strong charge, electrostatic charge, electron fine structure, and pi.
 Coulomb, Charles Augustin Institut de France, Mémoires de l’ Académie des Sciences (1785) 569ff, 578ff [as published in Shamos, Morris H. Great Experiments in Physics; Firsthand Accounts from Galileo to Einstein (New York, Dover Publications, Inc., 1987) 65]
 Gluon, an elementary particle that mediates, or carries, the strong, or nuclear, force. In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the quantum field theory of strong interactions, the interaction of quarks (to form protons, neutrons, and other elementary particles) is described in terms of gluons—so called because they “glue” the quarks together. Gluons are massless, travel at the speed of light, and possess a property called color. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright © 2003
 The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
 The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/cuu/Value?h|search_for=planck+constant
 The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
 The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Edited by E.D. Hirsch, Jr., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. Copyright © 2002 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
 Intrinsic Shape of the Deuteron, Jefferson Labs (Nuclear Highlights) http://www.jlab.org/highlights/nuclear/Nuclear.html
 The relative strengths of the forces differ widely from source to source. The values shown here are from tables the author grew up with, but no longer has reference to. Most sources today quantify the relative strength between the strong force and electrostatic force as being equal to the fine structure constant, which is totally baseless. Some sources also show the relative strength between all the forces in terms of the electron fine structure constant.
 The Physics and Relativity FAQ, as a collection, is © 1992--2002 by Scott Chase, Michael Weiss, Philip Gibbs, Chris Hillman, and Nathan Urban. http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Quantum/casimir.html
 Lamoreaux, Steven K., Demonstration of the Casimir Force in the 0.6 to 6 mm Range (Physical Review Letters, VOLUME 78, NUMBER 1, 1996)
 Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, John Archibald Wheeler Gravitation (W.H. Freeman and Company, 1973) 407