Appendix I – Known Constants


Value and Dimensions

Quantum measurements

Compton wavelength


Coulomb’s electrostatic constant


Elementary Charge


Fine Structure Constant


Mass of Electron


Mass of Neutron


Mass of Proton


Newton’s gravitational constant






Planck’s Constant


Speed of Light


Appendix II - New Constants


Value and Dimensions

Quantum measurements













Current Density[1]


Double Cardioid
(page 48)


(page 126)


Eddy Current90
(page 121)


Electric Charge Density


Electric Field Strength[2]
(page 231)


Electric Flux Density[3]


Energy (Tshankha)









(page 125)


(page 125)




(page 132)






Magnetic Field


Magnetic Flux


Magnetic Flux Density


Magnetic Flux Strength




Mass Density


Mass to Charge Ratio (Electromagnetism)
(page 48)




(page 192)






Pressure (Energy Density)




(page 126)


Rotating Magnetic Field (page 63)


Shock Frequency


Specific Charge


Specific Volume


(page 50)


Surface Charge


Surface Density


Surface Tension


(page 156)


(page 132)






(page 154)






Wave Number
(page 97)



Aether unit – The primary unit of physical and non-material existence equal to times Coulomb’s constant.

Anti-matter – Matter that has opposite spin direction to normal matter. 

Anti-proton - The antiparticle of the proton.*

Charge – [Dimension] The intrinsic property of Aether, inherited by angular momentum, and responsible for all electric phenomena.*  [Measurement] The measure of the dimension of charge.

Conductance, Aether - A measure of the Aether’s ability to conduct electric charge.

Constant - A quantity assumed to have a fixed value in a specified mathematical context.* Quantum measurements and quantum units are also constants.

Constant of proportionality – A phrase used to obfuscate the true nature of a constant.

Dimension - an expression of the character of a derived quantity in relation to fundamental quantities, without regard for its numerical value.* In the APM the spherical constant of is also considered a dimension, along with mass, length, frequency, and charge.

Double cardioid – A natural geometrical construct of space-resonance, which characterizes as two parallel cardioids with opposite spin.

Double loxodrome – Similar to loxodrome except that it extends over the surface of two adjoining spheres.

Electron – A stable onn having the angular momentum equal to Planck’s constant.

Elementary charge – The charge imparted by the Aether unit when an onn occupies one of the four Aether spin positions.  The elementary charge has the same magnitude for all charged onta, but it can be negative or positive depending on which Aether sphere the onn occupies.  Elementary charge has a solid angle of 1.

Energy – A unit with the dimensions of mass times velocity squared.  Energy is a unit for quantifying the amount of work performed by onta, but energy is not an object of itself.

Frequency – [Dimension] The property or condition of occurring at regular intervals. [Measurement] The number of times a specified periodic phenomenon occurs within a specified interval. *

Friction – A unit in the Aether Physics Model equal to resistance times velocity.

Gforce – An enormous, all-pervading force that drives the physical Universe, equal to .

Hutchison effect – The phenomena produced when bombarding materials with microwaves and electrons at a specific combination of frequency and charge density.  Effects witnessed are objects accelerating upward and the rearranging of molecular structure without affecting atomic structure.  First reported by John Hutchison.

Inertia – The quality of the dimension of mass, which causes objects in motion to stay in motion and objects at rest to stay at rest.

Length – [Dimension] The state, quality, or fact of being long. * [Measurement] The measurement of the length dimension.

Light – A unit in the Aether Physics Model equal to the photon unit times the frequency of photon reproduction.

Loxodrome - The path on a sphere that maintains a fixed compass direction, shown on a sphere as a line crossing all meridians at the same angle.

Mass – [Dimension] The quality that identifies inertia.  [Measurement] The measurement of inertia.  Mass is not equal to matter, mass is merely a dimension, or a measurement of that dimension.

Measurement - Determination of the magnitude of a quantity by comparison with a standard for that quantity.*  In the APM, a quantum measurement is also a dimension with a specific value: mass of the electron, Compton wavelength, etc.

Neutrino (also anti-neutrino) – The quantity of stray angular momentum ejected from a neutron in a beta decay process.  It is not a true onn.

Neutron – An onn composed of a proton, captured electron, and captured stray angular momentum.  The neutron has ½ spin.

Onn (Onta) – Neither a particle, nor a wave, but the state of stable matter which includes the electron, positron, proton, anti-proton, neutron, anti-neutron, and photon.

Orthogonality – Dimensions and units at right angles to each other.

Photon – A quantum unit of expanding electron angular momentum with 1-spin.

Positron – The anti-onn of the electron having positive charge and ½ spin.

Primary angular momentum – The most primary state of stable matter.

Proton – A stable onn having the angular momentum equal to  and half-spin.

Quantum Structure – A new branch of physics complimentary to Quantum Mechanics, which describes the structure of quantum existence as opposed to its mechanics.

Reach – The constant of length per Aether mass coexisting with the Gforce acting through the gravitational constant.

Space-time – Referring to the product of three dimensions of length at 90 degrees to each other and one dimension of linear time.

Space-resonance – Referring to the product of three dimensions of length at 90 degrees from each other and two dimensions of distributed frequency.

Spherical charge – The geometry of elementary charge caused by the geometry of distributed frequency.

Spin position – The location within a quantum Aether unit where angular momentum resides.  Each Aether unit contains four spin positions with the characteristics of positive-right spin, positive-left spin, negative-right spin, and negative-left spin.

Steradian – A unit of measure equal to the solid angle subtended at the center of a sphere by an area on the surface of the sphere that is equal to the radius squared: The total solid angle of a sphere is 4π steradians. *

Stroke – The constant of length per Aether strong charge coexisting with the Gforce acting through the rmfd constant.

Strong charge – The electromagnetic charge possessed by all onta and directly proportional to the mass of the onta.

Time – [Dimension] The dimension in which all references to intervals occur.  [Measurement]  The measurement of intervals.

Tshankha – The electron quantum unit of energy.

Unit – A specific combination of quantum measurements that yields a specific physical property: velocity, friction, magnetic field, potential, etc.  Quantum units are also constants.

Weak interaction - A fundamental interaction between onta that is several orders of magnitude weaker than the electromagnetic interaction and is responsible for some particle decay, nuclear beta decay, and neutrino absorption and emission.*

* Definitions quoted from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.










 APM Highlights

The Aether Physics Model includes many new physics concepts to explain Quantum Structure.  The parameters induce directly from empirical measurements of electrons, protons, Coulomb's constant, the Newton gravitational constant, Planck's constant, the speed of light, and the permeability and permittivity of space.

New from Aether Physics Model

    • Unified Force Theory - Unifies all fundamental forces
    • Geometrical model of space and resonance –  Space gets its curvature from resonance
    • Space-resonance is more fundamental than Space-time
    • Identification of Aether as rotating magnetic field
    • Evidence of a non-material creator through analysis of Gforce and dimensions
    • Quantification of consciousness
    • Identification of dark matter as primary angular momentum
    • Neutrino quantifies as captured dark matter between folded Aether units in neutron
    • Proton and neutron fine structure constants quantified
    • Matter and anti-matter are gravitationally repulsive
    • Electron binding energy equation

Corrections to Standard Model

    • Strong force carrier quantified as manifestation of charge instead of gluon or pi meson
    • Weak nuclear “force carrier” quantified as proportion of elementary to strong charge
    • All charge is distributed, not single dimension (as observed by Charles Coulomb)
    • Physical origin of fine structure constants quantified
    • Proton and neutron angular momenta quantified
    • Mass-energy equivalence theory not required
    • Energy and mass are not "things" and cannot be converted to each other
    • Subatomic “particles” identified as primary angular momentum encapsulated by Aether
    • More precise definitions of dimensions and units
    • Photon quantified as a true quantum “particle” and capable of being modeled
    • Photons can be created from outside of space-time
    • Expanding Universe quantified as photon construction via law similar to Casimir effect
    • Casimir equation corrected
    • Corrected value of neutron g-factor
    • Corrected value of neutron magnetic moment
    • All energy has two phases, positive and negative
    • Resonance is a distributed unit and there are three primary resonances in LC circuits

New System of Quantum Units

    • Rotating Magnetic Field is a unit
    • Conductance is a constant of “free space” (Aether)
    • Photon is a unit
    • Light is a unit
    • Eddy current is a unit
    • Friction is a unit
    • Resonance is a unit


In Appreciation

A special thank you goes to Angelyn Ray for her

 invaluable volunteer editing of the

Secrets of the Aether manuscript,

and for polishing it from draft form to final copy;

 and to Lorisa Gardiner of The Aenor Trust

for her assistance with editing and publishing.


We also thank Colleen Thomas

for making it her mission to get the

Aether Physics Model out to the public.


Not everyone listed in the credits are supporters of the Aether Physics Model.  Some people were (and may still be) active opponents of the Aether Physics Model, but their questions and criticisms led to the exploration of physics topics that might not otherwise have been explored.  Others have simply asked the right questions at the right time.  While seeking answers to these questions, the authors gained further insights into the Aether Physics Model.

Yet others are open-minded and qualified physicists and engineers who have the patience to entertain a new theory of Quantum Structure.  These people have provided constructive criticism, asked logical questions, and provided useful data or other material to foster the development of the equations.

Then there are those who saw the value of the Aether Physics Model and outright supported our efforts through financial and other material contributions.  In thanks for the financial support, I acknowledge very generous contributions from Jim Bourassa, Angelyn Ray, Carole Morrissette, Lonnie and Becky Pritchard, Social Lodge #38 F&AM, Dana Thomson, and Colleen Thomas.  This is not to belittle the other meaningful donations, which helped move us forward.

Thanks to the following persons for contributing to the Aether Physics Model through guidance, suggestions, good questions, or criticisms.

Tarthang Tulku, Jim Bourassa, Don Palermo, EL Hemetis, Terry Fritz, Vincent Thomson, Guy Grantham, Robert Lanigan-O'Keeffe, Phillip Scribner, Greg Dunn, Norman Bollinger, David McCutcheon, Peggy Sue Manierre, Bert Hickman, Drake Bailey, Tom Gutman, Harry Hubbard, Paul Kelly, Phil Risby, Dan Marquez, Dr. James G. Gilson, John Sefton, David L. Bergman, Glen C. Collins, Charles W. Lucas Jr., Atom Scott, Dale Sumburèru, Jim Farrer, Frederick McGalliard, Jet Black, James Moore, Ed Phillips, Floyd Purcell, Fred Diether, Bilge, Leo Cabana, Richard Hull, Colin Quinney, Gwyn P. Williams, Angelyn Ray, Valdeane W. Brown, Tom Collura, Vlad Tokarev, Norman Talsoe, Cynthia K. Whitney, Colleen Thomas, Tom Harrelson, James T. Lee, Richard Merrick, Gerald Hooper, David Thomson Sr., Jack Houk, Lester Hulett, Loys Nunez, Michael Duffy, Mike Hollingsworth, Warren Siegel, Br. Kevin Ryan, George Bass, and Robert Davic.

 And of course, we must all thank the great mystics, philosophers and scientists throughout history, whose shoulders we stand on. 

[1] CURRENT DENSITY. (1) A vector representing the time rate of flow of electric charge per unit area. The direction of the vector is the direction of positive charge flow; the magnitude is the limit of the flow rate per unit area as the area approaches zero. The area considered is perpendicular to the direction of flow. Walter C. Michels, International Dictionary of Physics and Electronics (New Jersey: Van Nostrand, 1956) 206.

[2] "Electric Field Strength (Elec. Eng).. The strength of an electric field at any point; measured by the force in dynes exerted on a unit charge at the point. " C. F. Tweney and L. E. C. Hughes, eds., Chambers's Technical Dictionary (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: W.& R. Chambers, 1958) 285.

[3] “Electric Flux Density (Elec. Eng).. The integration of the electric field intensity per unit area, the integration being taken over an elementary area normal to the direction of the field intensity. It is the same as displacement (q.v. Diel. ).”  C. F. Tweney and L. E. C. Hughes, eds., Chambers's Technical Dictionary (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: W.& R. Chambers, 1958) 285.