- Details
- Written by David W. Thomson III

*The Aether Physics Model is a discrete model of quantum structure**.* While this book will show alternative explanations of certain Standard Model concepts of quantum structure, it is a tribute to the genius of the thousands of physicists and engineers contributing to the Standard Model theories and data. The Aether Physics Model depends on the empirically derived data that made the Standard Model useful.

Standard Model - Definition

A model of fundamental forces and particles that explains their behavior and interactions in terms of symmetries and the destruction of symmetries.[1]

The Standard Model of Particle Physics, generally referred to as “Standard Model,” is the name given to the current theory of fundamental particles and their interaction. This theory includes:

- Strong interactions due to the color charges[2] of quarks and gluons.
- A combined theory of weak and electromagnetic interaction, known as electroweak theory, that introduces W and Z bosons as the carrier particles of weak processes, and photons as mediators to electromagnetic interactions.[3]

The Standard Model includes (or excludes) many other theories concerning particle structure and behavior, depending on which authority is consulted. In general, at least as far as this book is concerned, the Standard Model includes all accepted modern theories contributing to the understanding of particle behavior insofar as particles are labeled photons, electrons, protons, neutrons, muons, pi mesons, quarks, tau, and there are numerous others. Moreover, since the “mass equivalence to energy” paradigm is often a part of the explanation of Standard Model theory, the Standard Model may sometimes be interpreted to include Einstein’s Special Relativity theory.

*The Standard Model is a collection of interpretations concerning quantum physical observations, while the Aether Physics Model is at times a very different interpretation of the same data.* Therefore, we will refute some of the paradigms of the Standard Model and replace them with different paradigms from the Aether Physics Model.

The process of the Standard Model, more often than not, predicts subatomic behavior based on macro object characteristics (billiard ball particles with momentum, mass equals matter, fuel equals energy, force equals mass times acceleration, etc). The Aether Physics Model begins with quantum constants, looks for fundamental patterns, and then mathematically and dimensionally develops the theory of subatomic structure while allowing for new paradigms (primary angular momentum, non-material existence as the ultimate source of physical existence, geometric structure of charge, Unified Force Theory, etc).

This book is a foundational introduction to the Aether Physics Model, which, including a completed Unified Force Theory, already explains many previously unanswered physics questions. Nevertheless, there are at least a few unfinished concepts presented in this book as well. The Aether Physics Model is so fruitful in revealing the true nature of the world that it will require decades to complete it in every aspect. So in some cases the reader receives as much of the theory as has been so far developed, with occasional suggestions for further development of a specific new physics concept. There is no claim that the Aether Physics Model is complete or that this book provides all the answers a physicist could ask.

The reader will not want to throw away their Standard Model texts and rely solely on the Aether Physics Model, at least not yet. Much work remains to bring the Aether Physics Model to par with the Standard Model. As part of our ongoing research and the fruitfulness of the Aether Physics Model, this third edition contains significant additions to theory, and it drops some sections that were included in the first and second editions.

*The promise of the Aether Physics Model is this: once completed, it will provide a solid foundation for understanding the structure of the Universe in which we exist.*

It is important to point out that the Standard Model is also not complete. And while the Standard Model may presently provide numerical answers to problems not currently addressed by the Aether Physics Model (half-life of atoms, for example), the Aether Physics Model already provides key solutions to physics not presently solved by the Standard Model (a Unified Force Theory, for example). *It will likely require many physicists and engineers to complete the Aether Physics Model, just as it took many physicists many years to develop the Standard Model.*

The foremost difference between the Standard Model and the Aether Physics Model is in the systems used to analyze the data. The Standard Model often removes all dimensions from the data and treats the data as numerical entities. This allows physicists to intentionally or inadvertently stretch the rules of reality, invent unfounded rules, convert one physical order of reality into another, or skip over poorly understood natural physical structures. In the Aether Physics Model, the data collects in its dimensional and geometric form, processes in its dimensional and geometric form, and the equations materialize in dimensional and geometric form. There is no room for misinterpretation of the physical structures or the data since we always account for the dimensions and geometry.

Also, by keeping the dimensions and geometry with the data and the equations, the physicist is forced to give up old concepts of quantum structure when the dimensionally and geometrically analyzed processes don’t allow for the maintenance of old conceptual structures. For example, the Aether unit and its geometry influence the physicist’s understanding of other empirical constants, since the dimensions and geometry remain present.

One cannot convert the truth of the Aether’s existence to non-existence “just because,” as Albert Einstein reportedly did. If the measurements and data show that the Aether unit exists, then the Aether unit exists whether or not modern physicists and engineers are clever enough to detect it directly.

Not Just for Physicists

This Aether Physics Model appeals to a wide range of readers. Unlike the Standard Model of particle physics, nearly all the key equations in the Aether Physics Model flow with a basic understanding of algebra. The Aether Physics Model has a potential audience of philosophical and religious communities, as well as the scientific community. Scientists, philosophers, and others will have an opportunity to explore this remarkably coherent, mathematically derived, and empirically based theory of quantum structure that unifies all of physical existence as well as certain aspects of consciousness.

There is an absolute truth regarding the nature of the physical world, and as will be seen in these pages, the physical world appears to have a non-material origin. The physical world precisely quantifies because the underlying dimensions and geometry that make up the physical world measurements are real. In addition, since the dimensions and geometry are real, then the origins of the dimensions and geometry must be real. Nevertheless, as we progress in reductionism, we eventually run out of physical things to observe. Therefore, just as it is appropriate to look for the physics themselves, it is appropriate to look for the origin of the physical world even if it is non-material.

Interspersed with the physics in this book are metaphysical hypotheses. As is the case for all metaphysics, whether of science, religion, or philosophy, it is up to the reader to evaluate whether the metaphysical concepts have any meaning at all. Ultimately, if some part of us belongs to this Universe, and it appears it does since we interact with it, then the quest for the metaphysical origin of the Universe might also be a quest for the metaphysical origin of our true existence.

Just as we will see how physical existence never becomes a definite reality though we follow the progression from the level of dimensions toward the level of human existence, we also will understand how “self” *appears* to share this inability to find definite reality. It would appear that our personal identity materializes from our complex perception of the physical world. Perhaps as we explore the experience of our mind as it relates to each level of physical existence, we might find courage to familiarize ourselves with the non-material origin of our existence and experience a true and complete metaphysical experience.

## Scope of the APM

The Aether Physics Model is science that lends itself well to ontological philosophy. The ontology of the APM is perfect in that it reveals absolute knowledge at the quantum level, is based on empirical data, and it appeals to common sense. The APM is a kind of creation theory that shows a logical evolution of non-material, but real, dimensions into complex forms of physical existence.

Conversely, one could also look at the Aether Physics Model as a perfect reductionism of physical structures. Each physical form ultimately manifests as a collection of molecules, which in turn are collections of atoms. The atoms construct from units of angular momentum, and these units are composed of quantum measurements, which at the finest level of physical perception arise from dimensions. Undoubtedly, the dimensions arise from a yet more primary, albeit non-material Source. This book focuses on that range of physical existence from dimensions to molecules. This book also explains how consciousness interfaces with physical existence.

The reader should question whether reductionism should proceed as Zeno’s paradox, whereby mere mathematical division reduces systems. However, if this were the case, what would be the physical principle for mathematically dividing something into infinity? A human being is an entity. If we reduce the entity, we find it builds from bodily organs and parts such as heart, liver, skeleton, and skin. We do not say that humans build from smaller humans. Similarly, the organs build from cells, which have a level of existence that is very different from the organs. Moreover, the cells build from molecules, which are a more basic order of reality than the cells. The atoms that make up the molecules are a yet more simplified order of existence than the molecules. The subatomic particles are yet a simpler order of existence than the atoms. Moreover, the dimensions that make up the units of subatomic particles are a still more fundamental order of existence.

So one needs to question whether the Standard Model interpretation of so-called “particles” is accurate since atoms are truly the smallest particles of physical matter. Molecules are systems of particles; and electrons, protons, and neutrons are subsystems of particles. By labeling everything a particle, the Standard Model completely ignores the various observable taxonomies of existence.

Many structural concepts from the Standard Model sub-theories, such as wave-particle duality[4], color forces[5], flavors[6], up and down characteristics[7], and the equivalence of energy and mass[8] have no meaning within the Aether Physics Model. These concepts and others fade behind a single structural theory of angular momentum and Aether units, revealing a fresh paradigm for understanding physical structures, which is self-consistent throughout.

Note

*The foundation for the Aether Physics Model is the same empirical data used by the Standard Model. However, we must understand the Aether Physics Model within its own context and not necessarily within the context of Standard Model concepts.*

Most of modern physics laws also carry over to the Aether Physics Model. Ohm’s law, the force laws, conservation laws, and nearly all other physics laws operate the same in both models, although the dimensions of the units may be different where charge is concerned.

The Aether Physics Model (APM) begins as an ontological[9] structural model based on empirical data. The ontology of the APM begins with the proper understanding of dimension and measurement, and with the understanding that space-time[10] is equally as important as the matter that resides within it. In turn, space-time is just one aspect of the Aether unit. Aether implies more qualities to space-time than merely the dimensions of length and time. In addition to length and time, the Aether also includes the dimensions of mass and charge. And as odd as it may initially sound, charge has solid angle geometry. Space-time is actually space-resonance, as will be discussed later.

The Standard Model of Particle Physics describes electrons, photons, protons, neutrons, and even things like gluons and quarks as “particles.” In the Aether Physics Model, these “particles” are not solid, nor are they pieces of something solid. The very basic form of physical existence is termed “primary angular momentum” when we discuss its mechanical structure. When discussing a stable form of primary angular momentum in general, we will call it “onn” (onta when plural)[11]. Whatever process it was that first thrust onta into existence, it is the Aether that maintains the onn spin, and accordingly the structure of all physical matter. Though it may sound counterintuitive at first, physical matter, as we know it, is actually a trace of the Aether. In other words, physical shape actually comes from non-material Aether, and is not an inherent property of matter.

*Furthermore, since matter is contained within Aether, matter does not move in space-time. Rather, space-time moves relative to itself. *Matter is carried through space-time like dust is carried in the wind and algae is carried in ocean currents. Aether has a fluid characteristic such that one region of space-time can flow past another region, like the Gulf Stream can flow past the Sargasso Sea in the North Atlantic Ocean. Strictly speaking, neither time travel nor space travel is possible. Only the rearranging of the Aether is possible, and hence, certain relativistic-like effects seem to occur.

A distinction rises between stable matter and collision effects in the Aether Physics Model. Electrons and protons are two stable forms of matter, as well as their anti-particles, the positron and anti-proton. Neutrons are composite particles of a proton and electron and they remain stable as long as the bound pair remains in an atomic nucleus. However, the muon, tau, quarks, and other extremely short-lived “observed particles” are merely collision or “unbinding” effects. The collision effects offer some insights into the processes of physics, but are of little more use for quantum structural science than crash tests are for automobile manufacturers. Although particle accelerators are useful technology, one has to question just how many we need. It would be far more productive to focus our scientific inquiry on the actual physical structures of stable matter, than to focus too much attention on collision effects.

## A New Dimensional Analysis

The Aether Physics Model makes extensive use of quantum measurement analysis, which is very similar to dimensional analysis[12]. Calculus equations are not necessary for understanding the essential structures of quantum existence. Therefore, the Aether Physics Model is easier to comprehend than the Standard Model concepts of quantum structure.

Because the Aether Physics Model is fully compatible with Classical Mechanics (logically modeled physical *processes*), the APM is inherently discrete. Theoretically, if a computer could compute faster than the speed of light, a computer model of the entire Universe could develop from the Aether Physics Model.

Just as the Standard Model improperly classifies all forms of existence as particles, it has an ambiguous lexicon in other areas, too. In order to better use quantum measurement analysis, APM offers specific definitions for “unit,” “measurement,” “dimension,” and “constant.” Regardless of the variant definitions for these terms in our present culture, this book will use these words as defined in the following pages.

There are two different uses of the term “unit” common in physics, namely units of measurement and units of dimensions. The differences between the two uses are significant when we examine the structure of equations.

Unit Definitions

1. Unit of Measurement - any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange; “the kilogram is the MKS unit of mass”; “a unit of frequency is the Hertz.”

2. Unit of Dimensions - an individual, group, structure, or other entity regarded as a structural or functional constituent of a whole; “velocity is a unit equal to the dimensions of length per time”; “the dimensions of charge divided by time equal the unit of current.”

In the case of the “unit of measurement,” it would be far more logical if we simply called it measurement, and not unit. For example, we should call the kilogram the MKS “measurement” of mass, not its “unit” of mass. The term “unit” best defines, with regard to physics, a specific arrangement of dimensions. This clarification would eliminate a lot of confusion.

## Systems of Measurement

There are three generally accepted systems of measurement used in physics; cgs measurement, MKS measurement, and SI measurement. The Aether Physics Model utilizes a new system of measurement, based on quantum measurements.

The SI definition here quotes verbatim from its original source (unlike the MKS definition just below) because the SI system is an unnatural system of measurement, which consists of units (the Ampere) as basic measurements. It is largely the SI system of measurements, and generally the lack of clear definitions for “measurement,” “dimension,” and “unit,” that perpetuate confusing terminology in our present systems of measurement.

Here is a brief overview of the various systems of measurement:

*CGS Measurements*

A system of measurement based on the metric system, having the centimeter of length, the gram of mass, and the second of time as its fundamental units. Some cgs units are the dyne of force and the erg of work or energy. The measurements of the cgs system are generally much smaller than the comparable measurements of the MKS system.[13]

*MKS Measurements*

A system of measurement based on the metric system and having the meter of length, the kilogram of mass, and the second of time as its fundamental measurements. Some MKS units include the newton of force, the joule of work or energy, and the watt of power. The measurements of the MKS system are generally much larger and of a more practical size than the comparable measurements of the cgs system. The MKS system provides the basis for the International System of Measurements (SI)[14] and the new Aether Physics Model quantum measurements.

*SI Measurements*

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS officially called the Système International d'Unites, or SI, system of units adopted by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures (1960). It is based on the metric system. The basic units of length, mass, and time are those of the MKS system of metric units: the meter, kilogram, and second. Other basic units are the ampere of electric current, the kelvin of temperature (a degree of temperature measured on the Kelvin temperature scale), the candela, or candle, of luminous intensity, and the mole, used to measure the amount of a substance present. All other units are derived from these basic units[15].

Current Definitions of SI Measurements by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as follows:

The meter is the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

The kilogram is the unit of measure for mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram[16].

The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom[17].

The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to per meter of length. The kelvin, unit of measurement for thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.

The mole is the amount of substance of a system, which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012kg of carbon 12; its symbol is “mol.” When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles.

The candela is the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian.

*Quantum Measurements**:* Because the MKS system of measurements is most practical for everyday observations, it occurs frequently as the basic system of measurements throughout this book unless otherwise stated. As already mentioned, the Aether Physics Model produces yet another system of measurements, devised so that all measurements base on the quantum length, quantum frequency, quantum masses, quantum charges, and the spherical constant.

Quantum Measurements in APM

The quantum length is the Compton wavelength[18] and is equal to [19]. The symbol for the quantum length is lambda sub-C (l_{C}).

Because nearly all human-scale energy interactions at the subatomic level take place via the electron, the quantum mass is usually the mass of the electron and is equal to [20]. The symbol for the quantum mass is m sub-e (). When transactions occur with the proton, neutron or Aether, the symbol for the quantum mass is m sub-p, m sub-n, or m sub-a respectively (). Consult Appendix I for the mass values of the proton, neutron, and Aether.

The quantum frequency, symbol F sub-q (), is equal to the speed of light divided by the quantum length and is . The reciprocal of the quantum frequency is the quantum time (symbol T sub-q, ).

The quantum charges are the electrostatic charge (elementary charge squared) and electromagnetic charge. The electrostatic charge notates as and is equal to . The electromagnetic charges calculate from onn angular momentum and are equal to angular momentum times the conductance constant of the Aether. The values are shown later in this book and are written as , , , and for the electron,

proton, neutron, and Aether, respectively.

Units such as temperature and light intensity base upon dimensions. For example, the unit for temperature is equivalent to the Sievert in the MKS system, and one degree Kelvin is equal to 286.966 Sievert.

Because this new system rests on the Compton wavelength (quantum length), mass of the onta, and quantum frequency, we could refer to it as the system of quantum measurements.

## Units of Dimensions

The Aether Physics Model distinguishes between units of measurement and units of dimensions. Nearly all of the units of dimensions in the Aether Physics Model are four letter variables that suggest their unit function. For example, current is denoted as *curr*, potential is *potn*, and resistance is *resn*.

Ohm’s law written in Aether Physics Model units of dimensions is:

The quantum measurements and quantum units can also serve as quantum constants. (The units from other systems of measurement are also constants, but they are not quantum constants). Two common quantum constants already in wide use are the quantum velocity and quantum angular momentum. The quantum velocity is the speed of light and notates as the variable . The quantum electron angular momentum is the Planck constant[21] and notates as .

Units of dimension build from quantum measurements. For example, the unit of potential (potn) is a unit of dimension made up of quantum measurement:

In the case of velocity, when the APM unit of dimension for velocity is used (velc) it can also be substituted with .

Another exception to the four-letter rule is the quantum unit for energy. The Tibetan word “tshankha” means “energy with force and power.” Tshankha ceremoniously represents energy in the Aether Physics Model, as the energy of stable onta has a sacred nature to it.

also:

Since the electron quantifies as its angular momentum, tshankha is the angular momentum of the electron replicating (perpetuating) each quantum moment. Tshankha is thus the amount of energy expended each quantum moment by the Aether to keep “alive” one electron. Considering the number of electrons there are in the Universe, the Aether is indeed quite powerful and forceful to keep the spin of all onta perfectly consistent throughout all space and all time. Tshankha is also a reminder that the concepts of space and time as components of the physical world are highly developed in the Tibetan Buddhist literature.

In the Standard Model, where variables such as (for mass) and (for energy) are used, the variables have dimensions but no values. As such, is not a true equation, rather it is an expression (or formula). If and had inherent values, as does the constant , then would equal a single unit of energy and would equal a single unit of mass.

is not mathematically equal to , which in turn means that the “equation” so often attributed to Einstein, that is , is not a true equality. In the Aether Physics Model, constants appear in place of variables. A valid equation describing a unit concerning quantum physics would also appear in terms of quantum measurements. For example:

In the APM, all quantum units have a quantum measurement representation.

## Quantum Constants

As previously mentioned, all quantum measurements and quantum units in the Aether Physics Model are also constants. Most essential constants in the Aether Physics Model already exist in Classical physics[22].

Coulomb’s constant , the gravitational constant , the speed of light , permeability of free space , permittivity of free space , Planck’s constant , fine structure constant of the electron , and the Compton wavelength retain the same values, dimensions, and nomenclature as in the Standard Model. The values and dimensions for each of these constants appear in the Appendix.

New constants, based on the known constants of the Standard Model, are identified, their purpose defined, and their utility revealed (page 120). New constants and quantum units also appear in the Appendix.

One important new constant from the Aether Physics Model is the conductance of the Aether (page 161), which is essential for calculating and understanding the nature of strong charge.

There are many important new constants, new equations, and new understandings provided by the Aether Physics Model. Taken as a whole, these physics additions result in a new foundational paradigm differing significantly from several Standard Model paradigms.

We remind the reader that the Aether Physics Model as presented in this book is no more complete than the Standard Model. The value of the Aether Physics Model, however, lies in the fact that its paradigm begins with a firm foundation of quantum structural existence and develops in complexity toward the macro structural existence with which we are familiar. The APM also quantifies the metaphysical pre-existence of the physical world and the nature of consciousness. The Standard Model, on the other hand, successfully discovered subatomic existence, but incorrectly concluded that collision effects and forces were elementary particles.

Therefore, we move forward with the understanding that the Aether Physics Model is a fresh beginning, based on a logical framework, which in turn derives from empirical data. We pursue the Aether Physics Model, not because it is the answer to all our questions, but because it leads us to answers regarding quantum structure more readily than the Standard Model with its discontinuous sub-models.

[1] The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

[2] QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS (QCD), quantum field theory that describes the properties of the strong interactions between quarks and between protons and neutrons in the framework of quantum theory. Quarks possess a distinctive property called color that governs their binding together to form other elementary particles. Analogous to electric charge in charged particles, color is of three varieties, arbitrarily designated as red, blue, and yellow, and—analogous to positive and negative charges—three anticolor varieties. Just as positively and negatively charged particles form electrically neutral atoms, colored quarks form particles with no net color. Quarks interact by emitting and absorbing massless particles called gluons, each of which carries a color-anticolor pair. Eight kinds of gluons are required to transmit the strong force between quarks, e.g., a blue quark might interact with a yellow quark by exchanging a blue-antiyellow gluon. "Quantum Chromodynamics," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[3] W AND Z PARTICLES elementary particles that mediate, or carry, the fundamental force associated with weak interactions. The discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) in Geneva, Switzerland, in the early 1980s was an important confirmation of electroweak theory, which unifies the electromagnetic and weak forces. The W and Z particles are quite massive for elementary particles; they are roughly 100 times as massive as the proton. "W and Z Particles," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[4] "Light," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[5] "Quarks possess a distinctive property called color that governs their binding together to form other elementary particles" "Quantum Chromodynamics," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[6] "This particle, a meson, was made of a fourth flavor of quark, called charm. (Since then two more flavors have been added to the menu: bottom, in 1976, and top, in 1995. Each of these six quarks has a corresponding 'antiquark,' bringing the total to 12)." Alex R. Dzierba, Curtis A. Meyer and Eric S. Swanson, "The Search for QCD Exotics," American Scientist Sept. 2000: 406

[7] "The quarks found in ordinary matter are the up and down quarks, from which protons and neutrons are made. A proton, for instance, consists of two up quarks and a down quark, and a neutron consists of two down quarks and an up quark." "Elementary Particles," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[8] "According to the law of mass - energy equivalence, developed by Albert Einstein as part of his theory of relativity, a quantity of matter of mass m possesses an intrinsic rest mass energy E given by E = mc^{2}, where c is the speed of light." "Matter," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[9] Definition: Ontological - “Of or relating to essence or the nature of being.”

[10] Definition: Space-time – “The four-dimensional continuum of one temporal and three spatial coordinates in which any event or physical object is located.” Space-resonance is the five-dimensional continuum of two temporal and three spatial coordinates.

[11] “There was a time when physicists regarded protons and electrons as particles, photons as waves. As we shall see later, this distinction can no longer be maintained. They are still often called "elementary particles," but as we shall also learn neither the word "elementary" nor the word "particle" fits the case. Let me name them simply onta (singular: on) after the Greek word for being (On, plural Onta).” Henry Margenau, Open Vistas; Philosophical Perspectives of Modern Science (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1961) 118.

[12] "The expression of any particular quantity in terms of fundamental quantities is known as dimensional analysis and often provides physical insight into the results of a mathematical calculation." "Dimension, in Physics," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[13] Paraphrased from "Cgs System ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[14] Paraphrased from "Mks System ," The Columbia Encyclopedia , 6th ed.

[16] "fundamental unit of mass in the metric system, defined as the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at Sèvres, France, near Paris." "Kilogram," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[17] "1 sec is 1/31,556,925.9747 of the length of the tropical year for 1900. In 1967 the second was redefined to be 9,192,631,770 periods of vibration of the radiation emitted at a specific wavelength by an atom of cesium -133." "Second," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

[18] "The Compton wavelength of any particle is given by the relationship, λ0 = h / m0 c, where λ0 is the Compton wavelength, h is Planck's constant, m0 is the rest mass of the particle, and c is the velocity of light." Van Nostrond Company, Inc., Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1968) 395.

[21] "The first direct measurement of the quantum of action was obtained by J. Franck and G. Hertz by liberating quantities of light through electronic impulses." Where Is Science Going? James Murphy, Max Planck (New York, W.W. Norton & Company Inc., 1932) 59-60

[22] "Classical physics includes the traditional branches and topics that were recognized and fairly well developed before the beginning of the 20th century; mechanics, sound, light, heat, and electricity and magnetism." "Physics," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.